Male C. pallida are able detect the pheromones which females release and use them to locate female burrows. When a virgin female is about to emerge from her burrow, she releases a scent that wafts up through the soil and is detected by the antenna of the males. This has led to males developing a very acute olfactory sense. Freshly-killed females have been buried to test whether sound also plays a part in male signaling. In these tests, male bees still dug up the dead females, proving that pheromone signaling is the only pathway. Males have also been observed to dig up other males. This shows that males and virgin females give off similar pheromones. Oddly, males also sometimes dig up other digger bee species. It is currently unknown why this occurs.
The egg will then hatch within two weeks, and the grub will eat the nourishment that the mother left. The amount of bee bread provided will directly affect the size of the offspring (more food = larger size). When the food has been eaten and the grub has fully developed, the grub will turn into a prepupa. Over the course of eleven months, the prepupa will undergo metamorphosis to become an adult bee. The adult bee will then dig to the surface in late April or early May, and will live for about a month. By late July, virtually no C. pallida can be found.
A C. pallida female will find a spot for her nest. She will then dig diagonally down about 12 inches (30 cm). At the end of this tunnel, she will dig an 1 inch (2.5 cm) long vertical chamber where the egg will be laid. The chamber will be about 8 inches (20 cm) below the surface. In this chamber, the female will form a brood pot lined with wax. The brood pot will contain nectar and pollen similar to the bee bread in other bees; however, unlike other bees, the bee bread is the consistency of molasses instead of being solid. The egg is laid on top of the bee bread and sealed in with wax, and the tunnel is partially filled with dirt to protect the egg. A female can create several of the burrows during her lifetime.
The Centris 610 and 650 were replaced about six months after their introduction by the Quadra 610 and 650 models, which kept the same case and designs but raised the CPU speeds from 20 MHz and 25 MHz to 25 MHz and 33 MHz respectively; while the Centris 660AV was renamed to Quadra 660AV without any actual design change. These Macs also existed during Apple's transition from auto-inject floppy drives to manual-inject drives. This is why there are two different styles of floppy drive bezel (faceplate) on these models. Some later Centris 660AV Macs have manual-inject floppy drives, so this change was not exactly concurrent with the name change.
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Larger females are able to better control the size of their offspring. As stated in the Life Cycle section, more bee bread leads to larger offspring. Larger females are able to gather more pollen and nectar in a shorter amount of time when compared to smaller females. This means that during rich conditions, the larger females can have larger offspring with greater fitness, or if conditions are poor, the females can simply choose to have smaller offspring. There is a lower limit to how small offspring can be, and thus, smaller females can’t make this reduction or increase in size in response to the environment. Smaller females are still able to exist since larger females can’t take advantage of having larger offspring when the density of nesting grounds is low. To put it another way, larger male offspring are less effective in low density nesting grounds since they don’t have as many opportunities to use their size to fight off other males; thus, in low density nesting grounds, small and large males have similar fitness which means that the extra bee bread which the larger male received served no purpose. Smaller males actually do better in low density areas because they don’t have to fight with larger males as much, and by extension, expend less energy. This lack of a reason to produce larger offspring reduces the fitness of the larger females since they have to dig larger tunnels to fit in, but still produce the same size offspring as smaller females.
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